Memaparkan catatan dengan label Behaviorism. Papar semua catatan
Memaparkan catatan dengan label Behaviorism. Papar semua catatan
Alhamdulillah, praise be to Allah for I am now a teacher pledging my service in special education- as some of you might have known. As many other young teachers have it, I too, am one of the "unlucky" ones to be sent to Sabah to work. Unfortunately, I never find Sabah as an unlucky place to be in...but that's another story to tell for another day. Today I will be writing about special education

Having worked in Sabah since mid-Jan, I can't say that I have taught the least-functioning kids ever. I mean, Pusat Pemulihan Dalam Komuniti (PDK) has way more challenging clients to deal with like the one you saw on Majalah 3 these past 2 years. However, I do find that dealing with special education kids are rather...thrilling, for most of the times. In this blog post, I will tell you about students I find most interesting during my tenure as a teacher for special education. I'm not in any way saying that these are the types that you'll see in other places; I'm just simply telling stories about these 5 special children

Let us start with..

We have just received this kid for enrollment less than a month but he is the one who drains both teachers' and other students energy everyday. WHY? Every single time he goes out the door, he will storm off and run to the end of school and hide there. To have him back in the classroom for safety reason, teachers, teachers' aides, as well as students, have to participate in the mini marathon event to have him subdued.

I myself has caught him playing alone next to a banana tree in a very conspicuous way -he was slapping the banana leaves as if tengah main sep sep sep tom tom tom with somebody. I later had a sit-down session with him to investigate and it seemed that the boy was said to have some kind of ability that enables him to see 'things'. He said that those things (some are evil ones) come to him and that was the reason why he always run away. He also said that he sees a 4-storeyed hotel behind our Pendidikan Khas punya jamban, as if our recent mak cik guard's story about an apparition back there was not spooky enough.

We talked about this to the student's father and he said that he has qarin or saka, I don't know. I never take this ghaib things seriously. The full story is too long for me to tell in this post and I don't think it's relevant to our objective pun.

Anyway, the last straw that made us call his father to pick him up at school 2 days ago was when he keeps on running away and hiding in dangerous areas. When subdued, he threw tantrum and it got kind of spooky...

He hasn't been to school since.

No, this one is not physical. I would never make fun of someone's physics when they can't help it. This girl, N, was caught so so so many times stealing stuff especially the ones that the teacher use to make craft stuff. Here in special education classes, we do not emphasize on academia but we focuses on skills instead. There are classes for car-washing, gardening, and making crafts. Amazing stuff, they make there

In order to produce stuff like aforementioned, we need to have raw materials and when the stock seemed scarce, the teachers responsible poke around many materials stuffed in this N student's bagpack.

Not only that, she also has a certain time in which she could be in her 'okay' mood. Otherwise, you would be scolded for no apparent reason, complete with Sinetron-style bulging eye style. She would stare you to death whilst saying things like "Cikgu ni makan gaji buta!" while the gaji was used to buy the materials that she took away nonchalantly.

But on the bright side, this student is very meticulous in her work and writing. Her handwriting, especially is like, super neat and pleasant to my eyes. She always gets stars for that, though.

This is a tragic one. This particular girl, S, is 14 or 15 I couldn't remember well since she studies in the mainstream class - the one that pursues academia. The problem is that she runs away from home. if you notice the simple present tense there, you would realize that it is something that she does from time to time. Last week, the mother brought her into our office for intervention because days before that she was missing for the god-knows-how-many-time.

Apparently, she follows her friends around and was even caught intoxicated with substance. None of the heavy stuff, though, but drugs are drugs. There are components in our system that react differently towards such substance in both short and long term. No mother should every worry about her children like hers did. S's mother scared that she would be treated like sampah because you can imagine what could become of a teenage girl when she follows guys around without protection.

It was a sad thing to see that S did not show remorse at all. The conclusion made to solve that question was to have her enrolled to a nearby correctional institute.

We pray that she would soon learn the wrongs in her ways and realize that we, especially her mother love her.

I am responsible for the gardening class and there is a student named "S" (lagi?). This boy has mild psychosis

  • impaired thinking and emotion
  • sometimes detached from reality
  • having delusions
but still in controllable condition lah. Otherwise we won't allow him to come to school. Speaking of which, he would often argue with teachers and fellow students on irrelevant things. He would threaten the girls and always feel as if everyone was out to get him. He will not listen to reason unless force (nobody touched him, btw. We implied force) were used against his psychosis episodes. 

There was this one time where he didn't want to do the work given during my English class. Trying to persuade, I tried to make small talk and somehow he accused me of saying bad stuff about him. There was also time when I asked the reason for him being absent the other day and he glared at me while accusing me of menghina his religion.

I was not even sure of his religious affiliation at that time.

Last 2 weeks, we held some sort of small feast and everyone was busy with their own tasks. We however, kept the students within our vicinity for safety reasons but macam biasalah there are always those who defy the authority. lol. S and another student strayed away and they played, and they fought.

Unfortunately, in that fight episode, he struck the other student's eyes with a stick. Judging that he is a danger to everyone on school compound, he was then barred from school for a set period of days.

Sometimes when you are in this kind of situation, you would question yourself whether it is alright to isolate him from other students because that might just exacerbate the situation even worse. I think he suffers from neglect issues because his father works 80km away and he stays with her brother in the house. The mother? She is in her village, being taken care by her family because it turns out that she has mental illness.

Is it genetics? I'm not sure. I always hold to the biopsychosocial factor as the root of mental illnesses. Your genetics is what your brain structure and hormone have. The psychology part depends on the way you are raised and lastly the social factor assess whether the environment has some sort of stressor to make you behave the way you do.

...and lastly

Few days back, somebody sent me a friend request on Facebook and I consequently received a message in my inbox from someone named Muhammad Firman (not the real name).

This student was the one from Johor. He was 16 when I taught there as a practical teacher. This particular Chinese student won't ever stop talking about Islam and how he aim to be one Muslim one fine day. Unfortunately, he was under 18 at that time and according to law and of course, familial restriction, he was not allowed to do that.

We at special education considered that maybe the fascination was one of the things teenage do when they want to impress someone. He was actually infatuated by one of the female Muslim students there and so we did not hinder his effort to learn about Islam, nor did we zealously encourage him to do just that.

Alhamdulillah, he is now a Muslim and I pray for you to have all the happiness in the world.

Now, do you understand how being a special education teacher gives you thrill, excitation, and happiness? These are not the students you can have in your normal classroom. They need special and attentive individual care. While in my writing I may have indicated that I have made mistakes, but I do hope that I can be a better special education teacher, and a better person .

Thank you for reading. 
Adakah dengan menambahkan gaji sahaja dapat meningkatkan produktiviti?

Jawapannya tidak. Dalam kajian psikologi berkaitan pekerjaan, mereka mendapati bahawa duit bukan penentu produktiviti yang terbaik. Kajian ni dilakukan dalam Psikologi Industri dan Organisasi.

Dalam post yang lepas saya mungkin ada menyentuh sedikit tentang Psikologi Industri dan Organisasi atau nama glamernya "IO Psychology" untuk Industrial dan Organizational Psychology. Since pembelajaran saya dalam bidang psikologi ni hampir meliputi semua bidang (tetapi bukan semua topik) dalam psikologi, maka bolehlah saya menceritakan apa yang saya tahu tentang program ni. 

Di peringkat universiti korang boleh belajar IO Psych sebagai satu subjek pilihan ataupun menjadikannya sebagai pengkhususan ijazah korang, bergantung pada minat dan keperluan. Jika korang jenis cinta pada ilmu dan kajian dan berniat nak mengembangkan psikologi di Malaysia supaya naik di mata dunia, maka ambillah ia sebagai subjek tambahan kepada ijazah sains psikologi anda. 

Kalau korang jenis praktikal dan ingin mencari kepuasan menggunakan pengetahuan psikologi dalam konteks pekerjaan, inilah pengkhususan yang korang cari. Lecturer saya (Singapore Chinese) semasa di Victoria University kata "this is your gold mine if you work really hard on it" katanya dalam dialek Kantonis yang kadang-kadang kami komplen sebab tak faham. Belum kira grammar lagi tu.

Well, anyway, apakejadahnya natang bernama IO Psychology ni?

scientific study of human behavior in the workplace and applies psychological theories and principles to organizations
Satu bidang saintifik tentang perlakuan manusia di tempat kerja dan menggunakan pengetahuan dan teori-teori mak nenek psikologi terhadap sesebuah organisasi. Jadi, apa yang membezakan mereka dengan pelajar teori dan eksperimen macam saya?

  1. Tak perlu masuk ke dalam badan sehingga ke bahagian biologi
    sebab biasanya keadaan di tempat kerja tak melibatkan pengetahuan biologi yang kompleks. Cukup dengan tahu waktu kortisol memuncak, atau kesan duduk depan PC melebihi 2 jam, taklah perlu tahu suprachiasmatic nucleus tu apa, tak perlu tahu tentang ADHD, Autism dan perkara berkaitan kepelbagaian manusia (belum mainstream di Malaysia)
  2. IO Psychology is money money money!
    Ini lecturer yang kata tapi menurut beliau lagi, tanggungjawab untung, rugi, dan produktiviti juga berada dalam bahu korang so tanggungjawab berat lah sebab prestasi pekerja berada dalam kuasa korang. Psikologi Umum perlu sambung ke Clinical Psychology atau ke peringkat PhD to make money. Belum pernah dengar ada kerja khusus untuk Psikologi Umum. Tapi knowledge matters, right? Biasanya mereka (IO) ni bekerja dalam bahagian Human Resource sesebuah syarikat (HR). Kawan saya dari UNISEL, sekarang bekerja di HR Shell 

Semasa saya mengikuti kursus Industrial dan Organisational Psychology di VUW, ada beberapa perkara yang ditekankan dalam IO Psych. 
  1. Teori dan kajian pakar Business Psych (IO Psych) yang mengeluarkan artikel tentang kajian sendiri. 
  2. Metodologi kajian
    Korang tak suka math? Nampak nombor je terus nak sawan? Maka ini bukan subjek/kursus sesuai untuk korang. Pegi ambik kaunseling. IO memang akan main dengan nombor untuk mengira data dalam kajian. Dalam metodologi korang akan belajar cara buat survey, cara susun ayat survey, jenis survey, cara kira, cara bandingkan data, memahami data, dan menerangkan maksud data
  3. Field trip bro!
    Field trip waklu lah. Hahaha. Masa kitorang buat field study, kami dikehendaki untuk pergi ke syarikat sekitar Wellington dan tebalkan diri mintak pekerja syarikat tu isi survey. Dalam hal ni ada juga beberapa cabaran yang kitorang kena hadapi antaranya ialah kita menyemak, satu lagi ialah data sensitif yang mungkin memburukkan nama syarikat tu. So, keep in mind kalau belajar benda ni perlulah bersedia
  4. Presentation
    Yang ni paling best sebab di sini lah kau boleh yakinkan orang kenapa kajian kau paling power. Kau kena terangkan kenapa kau buat kajian tu? Kajian tu berdasarkan teori dan kajian tokoh yang mana? Apa keputusan data yang dibuat? Kenapa gunakan cara pengiraan data tu? Dan so what kalau kau ada data tu?
Course coordinator saya masa saya belajar dulu ialah seorang berbangsa Jerman yang bernama Ron Fischer. Dia ni watlek watcool je tapi kalau baca kajian dia, memang power selain gaya hidup dia yang selamba dan penuh dengan budaya. Jadi, mungkinlah saya suka subjek IO ni partially sebab course coordinator/lecturer yang cool macam tu. Mungkin

Kalau ada soalan boleh tanya di bawah! 
Kita ni manusia biasa yang lemah, kadang-kadang tu bukan aje dari segi fizikal malah dari segi mental. Antara perangai orang yang mental nya lemah ni ialah jenis yang cepat terganggu tumpuannya. Kadang-kadang tu sampaikan masa beribadat pun tumpuan kita boleh terganggu dan mulalah sesuatu yang dipanggil sebagai "penangguhan" ataupun bahasa Inggerisnya, 'procrastination'. Dalam artikel kali ni, anda akan dapat sekurang-kurangnya 3 cara untuk melawan sifat bertangguh ni, dari segi psikologi.

Sebagai manusia biasa, saya sendiri kadang-kadang buat benda bertangguh ni mungkin sebab saya ni seorang perfectionist. Orang perfectionist ni dia nak benda tu disetelkan dengan result yang power. Kalau tak power, dia taknak buat. Ataupun ada jenis manusia yang tengah study 5 minit, lepas tu konon 'release' tension dengan main Facebook selama sejam. Kalau lima minit baca buku dapat 1 muka, dalam sehari boleh dapat lebih kurang 22 muka je lah. So, kita dapat tahu yang natang nama procrastination ni sangat-sangat menjadikan kita seorang yang tak produktif dan mungkin menyebabkan kita gagal dalam pelajaran

So, apakah cara mengelakkan procrastination mengikut kajian psikologi?

CARA 1: Marathon nota 20 minit
Untuk korang-korang yang bergelar pelajar, mesti susah nak baca buku teks dan nota kuliah semua tu kan? Nak-nak pulak bila ada internet connection di hujung jari peh lagi lah susah nak membaca. Untuk overcome problem ni, pertama sekali korang kena sign out Facebook dan Twitter tu. Handphone tu set timer untuk 20 minit dan letak jauh-jauh.

Kemudian, bawak keluar buku nota tu dan baca lah bersungguh-sungguh selama 20 mnit. Just, you and the book/notes. Bayangkan buku tu suami/isteri korang, selaklah sehelai demi sehelai dan bergembiralah masa menatap wajahnya sampailah handphone yang korang campak atas almari tadi berbunyi menandakan 20 minit dah tamat. Ambil masa 5 minit tu untuk buat benda yang korang paling suka. Makan ke angkat dumbell ke, gomol kucing ke...

Ada orang yang amalkan tweet apa yang dia baca. Percayalah dik, benda tu tak membantu sebab kat Twitter tu bukan awak je yang tweet. Ramai lagi yang tweet dan perhatian awak akan terganggu bila nampak tweet orang lain, dan apabila orang tanya awak pasal benda yang awak tweet tu

CARA 2: Denda Lima Hengget
Okay cara yang ni pulak memerlukan korang ada duit pecah RM5. Kalau takde, sila pergi kedai mamak berdekatan dan tukarkan duit orang kaya RM100 korang kepada nilai yang lebih kecil dengan membeli gula-gula Hacks

Langkah pertama, bagi duit tu kepada kawan/adik/sedara-mara yang boleh membantu korang dalam aktiviti ni. Buat perjanjian bahawa kalau korang tak siap kerja dalam masa yang ditetapkan, duit tu akan digunakan untuk buat benda yang korang paling tak suka. Contohlah macam aku, aku bagi member aku pegang RM5 tu dan kalau aku tak siap kerja maka duit RM5 tu akan pergi ke dana rokok harian dia. Kalau korang siap kerja dalam masa ditetapkan, maka duit tu akan kembali ke tangan korang dan bolehlah derma ke masjid-masjid berhampiran

Nilai RM5 boleh ditukar kepada nilai yang lebih tinggi mengikut kepentingan assignment/projek yang korang hendak buat. Pastikan nilai wang tu ada kesan kepada korang. Kalau gaji korang sebulan RM15K, set la denda tu jadi RM1K. Tapi kalau gaji ko dah berlambak gitu, aku tak rasa ko spesies kerja bertangguh.

CARA 3: Berlumba dengan kawan
Yang ni budak sekoah selalu buat dan ternyata ianya amat berkesan terutamanya untuk budak asrama. Diorang akan duduk sama-sama dan plan harini nak buat apa. Siapa yang siap dulu akan menang dan kalau nak lagi fun, member yang siap lambat dan banyak salah kena belanja aiskrim kat koop.

CARA 4: Set Tujuan
Cara ni pulak biasa digunakan oleh kakak dan abang ofis terutamanya dalam movie dan drama Amerika yang melibatkan kerja dalam cubicle. Orang Malaysia pun boleh amalkan teknik yang sama, jangan risau.

Caranya ialah dengan meletakkan gambar reward korang di depan mata. Contohnya kalau lah korang nak set gaji bulan ni nak pergi Krabi Thailand, maka letaklah gambar Krabi di stesen kerja korang. Bila korang rasa nak kerja bertangguh, tengok gambar tu dan fikir bahawa kalau korang tak fokus, maka korang tak deserve pergi ke Krabi

Okay tu je untuk kali ni. Selamat fokus menyiapkan tugasan. Abang nak pergi mandi kejap sebagai reward untuk siapkan entri ni dalam masa 30 minit :D
Dalam psikologi, ada satu teori yang dipanggil sebagai Teori Keperluan Maslow. Sebenarnya teori ni berada dalam cabang "behavorism" di mana teori ni menjelaskan tentang faktor-faktor yang mendorong seseorang tu untuk melakukan sesuatu. Benda ni sangat bagus especially kalau kau cikgu dan nak memudahkan pelajar kau hadam isi pengajaran harian. Gittew

Adohai, kantoi ambik daripada Wikipedia
Piramid Keperluan Maslow ni lebih kurang macam piramid makanan lah cumanya piramid makanan tu menunjukkan berapa banyak jenis nutrien tertentu yang kita perlu makan tapi Piramid Maslow ni pulak menunjukkan tahap-tahap keperluan pada manusia. Apa yang pakcik Maslow kita cuba nak sampaikan ialah sebenarnya jika keperluan bawah-bawah tidak dipenuhi, maka tak mungkin sekali yang atas-atas tu akan dapat dicapai. Dalam kata lain, sebagai contoh, jika kita takde makanan (keperluan physiological), maka kita tak mungkin akan merasakan kemanisan berkeluarga tu (keperluan love/belonging).

Faham? Okay jom go through semua lima tahap dari bawah ke atas:

Assalamualaikum, salam 20 Ramadhan dan selamat kembali ke blog ni eceh. Malam ni keihatan timeline twitter bergerak pada kelajuan anak siput baru nak belajar mengesot dan ini merupakan sesuatu perubahan positif sebab mungkin mereka ini sedang tidur. Daripada entri lepas Psikologi Tidur: Kesan Buruk Tidur, saya terlupa nak sebutkan dua kesan tak cukup tidur yang penting untuk tubuh badan kita. Efek tersebut adalah:

  • Tak cukup tidur buat korang gemuk.
  • Tak cukup tidur buat orang stress, dan menyebabkan jerawat

Are these not enough reasons to make you sleep at night? Jadi persoalan yang ditanya kawan di twitter dan ruangan komen berbunyi "macam mana cara nak tidur malam? Saya ada masalah tidur" dan variasinya. Izinkan saya beri cadangan dalam konteks behaviour modification

Sebelum saya menjawab soalan ni, bagi mereka yang ada masalah tidur di waktu malam, biar saya teka apa yang ada di sekitar kawasan tidur korang (bilik tidur lah, takkan jamban pulak). Saya syak dalam bilik korang ada barang berikut
Kali ni kita bercerita pasal tidur pulak memandangkan ramai kawan-kawan di twitter seperti tidak faham apa itu kepentingan tidur dalam kehidupan seharian.




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